guide to understand and get it
To know what is physical endurance is to know one of the main abilities that determine the physical condition of athletes. This is a parameter that is added to those of strength, speed and flexibility.
Along with them are coordination abilities, which are based on regulatory and wiring processes of the central nervous system. Coordination, balance and agility are included within this group.
Good sports performance in any modality is related to the proper development of these qualities. The resistance in physical education This is a capacity that takes on great importance in sports such as athletics or cycling.
What is physical resistance and what is it for?
Endurance as a physical condition is the ability that an athlete acquires keep your efforts effective as long as possible. If we want to put it another way, it would be the time that a person can endure, withstanding a high level of fatigue.
It is often associated with a psychophysical concept, as performance is not only influenced by the physical package. The mental aspect also plays an important role.especially in long-term efforts.
On the other hand, running or cycling resistance is not only related to how long you exercise maintaining that level of fatigue, but also to recovery period. People who do resistance training as a physical condition are also those who recover better from prolonged athletic efforts.
What types are there?
There are many criteria for classifying this physical capacity, but if we look exclusively at the type of dominant energy path, we can talk about aerobic and anaerobic endurance.
Other formulas for classifying resistance are by means of the musculature it implies when we talk about local or general resistance; or depending on the sport modality we would be talking about base or specific resistance.
Aerobic endurance is the ability to withstand fatigue through aerobic exertion. That is, the available oxygen in the blood is sufficient to cover energy needs. This ability is directly related to oxygen consumption (VOtwo) and the amount of this element that is obtained through respiration to be distributed later in the muscles.
To work on aerobic resistance, it is common to go to a sport characterized by cyclic movements that require continuous and sustained effort. Some examples are running, swimming, skiing or skating.
In these situations, inhaled oxygen is used for energy from glycogen and fat. As waste products from these reactions, H2O and CO2 are expelled through efflux. The reaction is called aerobic glycolysis.
The second type of endurance is anaerobic. In these cases, the need for oxygen is so high because of the intensity of the effort that there is a debt to this gas. That is, not all the necessary oxygen is obtained.
The consequence of this process is that the muscles do not receive enough nutrients and the ability to contract is limited. Anaerobic processes are produced to obtain energy. The reactions are anaerobic glycolysis, resulting in energy without oxygen. The final waste is lactic acid, which is a toxic substance for the body.
These efforts cannot be sustained for long, because between 30 seconds and three minutes from the start of this effort, lactic acid begins to build up. Two types of anaerobic resistance are distinguished.
alactic anaerobic endurance
This process occurs when no oxygen is available and when no lactic acid is produced. In these situations, the body uses phosphagenssome energy substrates of the body, which are activated when the body is subjected to very intense but short-term efforts.
Lactic anaerobic resistance
Anaerobic endurance of this type occurs when the phosphagens are now exhausted and in the absence of oxygen lactic acid must be used. Thus, the greater the intensity of the effort, the greater the oxygen deficit and lactic acid production.
If lacto-anaerobic endurance is activated for 10-meter sprints and with a minimum heart rate of 180 bpm, With lactate anaerobic endurance we are talking about races over 100 meters or hurdles.
Another way to distinguish anaerobic endurance is according to the duration of the effort:
- short resistance for periods of maximum two minutes of intense effort.
- medium resistance if the duration varies between two and ten minutes.
- long anaerobic endurance with longer periods between ten and 35 minutes.
In the field of anaerobic resistance, a very relevant concept is being worked on: that of anaerobic threshold. This refers to the fact that high-intensity efforts with high lactic acid production cannot be sustained after those 30 or 35 minutes of long resistance. From this point on, the fatigue level is so high that it is necessary to stop.
Benefits of resistance
Regular practice of this physical capacity goes hand in hand with a series of positive aspects that help improve sports performance and strengthen the general state of health. We show you in detail some benefits of resistance.
Exercises designed to improve this quality heart strengthening Cardiac hypertrophy occurs associated with lower rate of cardiovascular problems. Blood pressure is closely related to this process.
When the blood is sufficiently saturated with oxygen, it circulates more fluidly, thereby reducing the occurrence of hypertension or arteriosclerosis. The increased lung capacity is another positive aspect, as is the increase in OVtwomax (maximum oxygen consumption).
Training programs for every athlete should include specific resistance exercises. If the sports practice is aerobic in nature: long distance athletics, swimming, team sports…those procedures are even more important.
On the other hand, at a non-sporting level, solely to promote healthy living, it is recommended do 30 minutes of physical activity every day or at least oftenas this goes hand in hand with general improvement of the immune system and preventive solutions for diseases such as depression, cardiovascular problems or certain types of cancer.
Factors influencing resistance
If we consider that endurance in physical education is the ability to make an effort as long as possiblewe also need to consider what are the factors that influence this capacity.
Here we can talk about purely anatomical questions, such as type of muscle fibers; or metabolic problems: energy reservoirs and energy systemscardiovascular parameters and enzyme activity. At the same time, the mental aspect should not be overlooked, which refers to how the athlete overcomes the impositions of muscle fatigue through his mental strength.
The muscle fibers or type Ialso called slow-twitch fibers, are those that are activated for prolonged low-intensity aerobic work. Instead, fast, white type II or fast-twitch fibersare most adapted to aerobic work. A key difference between anaerobic and anaerobic endurance is shown here.
Regarding energy tanks, we have already mentioned them before. The phosphagens They are compounds that offer immediate energy in very short bursts of up to 15 seconds in anaerobic conditions. After them activate anaerobic glycolysis which generates lactic acid.
finally aerobic work is that which is covered with enough oxygen to oxidize glucose and glycogen. If the effort is extended beyond 40 minutes, the fatty acids begin to be burned and after a few hours of work the proteins come into action.
The last factor in resistance is enzymatic reactions. These compounds are metabolic catabolizers, speeding up reactions. The more of them, the greater the resistive capacity.. There are aerobic and anaerobic enzymes in the body.
How to work and improve endurance
Now that you know how it works, it’s time to learn how to improve physical endurance. For this, the magic formula is work. Different strategies can be established depending on the intensity of effort as indicated by ISAF.
To boost your aerobic endurance capacity, you can do sustained effort of long duration at a moderate pace, for example in cycling sessions for two or three hours. It’s an alternative increase the intensity and decrease the timeor include interval training and sets with alternating intensities and durations.
All these options answer the question of how to gain physical endurance without runningbecause you can go to other sports: swimming, cycling or even mountain climbing.
In case of anaerobic endurancethe recommendations you should follow are very similar but with a much higher intensity. Efforts should be very short, with long rests. In the area of muscle toning, it is ideal to switch to sets with medium and low weights, but without tiring the muscles and with many repetitions.
The resistance in physical education It forms one of the core athletic abilities, along with strength, flexibility and speed. Strengthening this quality is synonymous with getting closer to a better physical condition, achieving higher sports achievements and acquiring healthy habits. In this way, it is not only useful to achieve sports goals, but it is essential to improve the quality of life.