X-ray of girls in Andalusia: more vulnerable to different forms of violence

The Management Board got acquainted with the report prepared on the occasion of International Day of the Girlwhich is noted each October 11where analysis of Andalusian child situation with a gender perspective, analyzing data related to vulnerability, education, lifestyle habits, mental health or physical activity. The said document states that girls are more vulnerable to violence, encourage more that children in the educational sphere perform less sports activities and they are minority group in mental health counseling.

The report states that the government of the Junta de Andalucia continues to take steps towards a Andalusia is more egalitarian and free of sexist violence paying attention to the specific needs of girls with public policies that integrate them as beneficiaries and specific actions which seek to correct marked gender inequalities in childhood from a gender perspective.

Thus, the data collected in the document points to a increased vulnerability of girls in the face of the various analyzed forms of violence, girls in particular suffer more sexual assaults (85.4% compared to 14.6% of boys), are the main ones victims of corruption crimes minor (in 75.7% of cases) and pornography (60.4%); and furthermore in the family sphere 59.3% of bad treatments. In the same way, the analysis emphasizes that in the new forms of violence through ICT and social networks girls suffer from 63.3% of cyberviolence and cybercrime offenses compared to 36.7% of boys.

IN educational fieldGenerally speaking, by the bachelor’s degree, girls and boys advance to a greater extent than boys, by roughly a ten-point difference in all measures collected. However, children and adolescents score higher on indicators related to mathematics and science. While in reading comprehension, girls score higher, with a difference of 20 points.

Sincerely to habitsand specifically the consumption of tobacco, was observed to progress from 11-12 years, when only 0.2% of girls and 1% of boys smoke; up to 17-18 years, when 22.7% of girls and 23.2% of boys already smoke. There is no significant difference between the two, but the rate is high due to health risks. The same applies to the consumption of alcoholalthough it is more common than tobacco among girls and boys aged 11-18.

For body image, approximately half of the Andalusian child-adolescent population between the ages of 11 and 18 are satisfied with their height, but the other half, which differs, has gender differences. Thus, girls show more concern about being overweight, while boys show concern about being thin.

In the kingdom of sexual behavior, both sexes admit to having had their first sexual relationship between the ages of 15 and 16, but more boys (42.7%) declare having had a sexual relationship between the ages of 15-18 than girls (33.7%). Regarding contraceptive methods, young people are more likely to report using a condom in their last relationship, 79% compared to 69.3% of adolescents. Younger girls maintain this rate across age groups without significant changes, on the other hand, boys use condoms to a greater extent with age. It is worth noting that 28.8% of children between the ages of 15 and 16 admit that they did not use a condom during their last sexual act.

Less mental health care

In the frequency with which in their free time they perform physical activitiessignificant gender differences are found. Among girls aged 11 to 18, 15.4% declared that they had never been physically active, while among boys, 5.6% were those who had never done it. Among those who engage in physical activity, boys do it more often each week than girls.

Finally, bearing in mind child and adolescent mental health Significant differences in care were found in specialist units, where 68.2% of treated patients were boys compared to 31.7% girls (15,430 vs. 7,171 treated girls). As for the number of people who died by suicide, in 2020 they were 12, seven boys and five girls. Since 2012, the trend has been the same, with more deaths among boys.

Two laws against discrimination

In this regard, the UN warns that girls around the world continue to face unprecedented challenges in terms of their education, physical and mental well-being and the protection needed to live without violence. Covid-19 has exacerbated existing burdens for them and undermined the important gains made over the past decade.

Andalusia has two main laws to deal with persistent discrimination and inequalities. On the one hand, Law 12/2007from November 26, for promoting gender equality, which aims to contribute to overcoming the historical inequality of women in Andalusia; an inequality that represents the uniqueness of affecting more than half of the population.

And, on the other hand, Law 4/2021from July 27 on Andalusian childhood and adolescenceapproved in the last legislative body, where it is stated that children and adolescents are the bearers of all human rights and it is vital to consider that children’s rights take their own position, including the perspective of gender and equality in its articles.

More specifically, Article 13 of it states that “the Andalusian public administrations will introduce the gender perspective in the planning, development and evaluation of the measures they adopt with regard to children and adolescents, in all actions and programs aimed at minors and with special attention to inequality and/or discrimination based on gender, sexual orientation and gender identity’.

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