It can be detected even in patients with concomitant pathologies.
The researchers obtained a small sample of skin from 74 patients who participated in the study. Photo: Shutterstock.
New research implies that a skin test The minimally invasive approach can accurately diagnose Alzheimer’s disease with high sensitivity and specificity, even in the presence of comorbidities.
Daniel Alkon, MD, chief scientific advisor for SYNAPS Dx, the company behind the test, said that “the test, which measures factors related to synaptic connections in the brain, can be added to other tests to greatly increase the certainty of making a diagnosis .” Alzheimer’s disease. The findings were presented at the International Conference of the Association of Alzheimer’s (AAIC) from 2022.
According to the study, clinical trials testing potential therapies for AD typically include patients without a definitive diagnosis dementia For EA, this is because diagnoses are often uncertain, especially in the first 4 to 5 years of the disease.
Several tests have been developed to detect signs of AD, including magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography tests for amyloid plaque, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma measurements of soluble amyloid.
Although none of these tests have been widely validated at autopsy, the scientific adviser said, previous studies have shown that more than 50% of patients not only do they have AD, but they also have other pathologies, such as Parkinson’s disease, dementia frontal lobe or dementia multi infarct.
“It is not enough for a test to discriminate Alzheimer’s by a non-insane control person. It is valuable only if it can be distinguished from other species dementiaAlkon said.
He noted that while beta-amyloid and tau are used as “pathological red flags” to identify Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s at autopsy, they are not excellent for definitive disease diagnosis because they are not closely related to cognitive deficits. There is an “urgent unmet medical need” for a highly accurate and readily available biomarker for AD, he added.
One of the assays in the trial is morphometric imaging, which has previously been shown to closely correlate skin cell abnormalities with dementia and the presence of AD pathology in the brain of patients with EA.
“Studies correlate what’s happening in the patient’s brain with what’s happening elsewhere,” Alkon said. “The bottom line is [que] the disease has a systemic expression; It doesn’t just affect the brain, it affects the whole system.”
In the current study, researchers obtained a small sample of skin via skin biopsy from 74 participants. Of these participants, 26 had AD that was later confirmed at autopsy; They had 21 dementia not AD (not ADD); and 27 had not dementia and acted as a control group.
The researchers found that AD cell lines formed large aggregates, while cell samples from the control or non-ADD group formed smaller and more numerous aggregates. The researchers then counted the number of aggregates and measured the average area of the aggregates.
This made them differentiate patients with AD from those without ADD. Probability distributions of morphometric imaging signals show a clear separation of measurements for patients individuals with AD and for group values for patients without ADD.
The researchers also used samples from patients with dementia over the age of 55 and who had a blind autopsy performed. AD specificity persists even in cases with pathological comorbidity, including AD with dementias such as Parkinson’s disease, Pick’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. dementia of the frontal lobe.
“What is new and unique is that we have shown that we can measure AD even in patients who have a comorbidity, i.e. patients who have these other dementias,” Alcon said.
Alkon pointed out that this species research it takes a lot of time and requires “resources, persistence and determination”. Autopsy of death and confirmation can be done years after a skin test and clinical diagnosis.
“Physicians should use every available measure in the arsenal that they can before making a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’sand they must be thorough and cautious,” he added.
The company is currently seeking approval from skin test by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and received breakthrough status.
The test can help rule out other causes dementia for which there are treatments, such as thyroid disorder, major depression and vitamin B12 deficiency, Alcon notes.
He acknowledged that if the test shows AD, there are few effective treatments available. “In my opinion, none of the drugs currently available really treat the underlying disease,” he said.
Source consulted here.